BEFORE THE STATE BOARD OF EQUALIZATION
FOR THE STATE OF WYOMING
IN THE MATTER OF THE APPEAL OF )
RICHARD AND GLENDA HLAVNICKA )
FROM A VALUATION DECISION OF THE ) Docket No. 2006-87
FREMONT COUNTY ASSESSOR )
2005 PROPERTY VALUATION )
FINDINGS OF FACT, CONCLUSIONS OF LAW, DECISION AND ORDER
Rick L. Sollars, Western Law Associates, P.C., on behalf of Richard and Glenda Hlavnicka
(Petitioners or Taxpayers).
James Whiting, Deputy Fremont County and Prosecuting Attorney, on behalf of Eileen
Oakley, Fremont County Assessor (Respondent or Assessor).
STATEMENT OF THE CASE
This matter originally came before the State Board of Equalization (State Board) as an appeal
by the Fremont County Assessor from a decision of the Fremont County Board of
Equalization (County Board). The Assessor appealed the County Board decision directing
her to re-assess the Taxpayers’ property using an agricultural classification. The State Board,
comprised of Alan B. Minier, Chairman, Thomas R. Satterfield, Vice-Chairman, and Thomas
D. Roberts, Board Member, considered the hearing record and decision of the County Board.
Neither party requested oral argument. The State Board entered a Decisions and Order dated
July 13, 2006, remanding the Assessor’s appeal to the County Board for further proceedings.
Fremont County Assessor, (Hlavnicka Property), Docket No. 2005-86, July 13, 2006, ___
WL _____, (Wyo. St. Bd. Eq.). In response, on August 14, 2006, the County Board
requested, pursuant to Rules, Wyoming State Board of Equalization, Chapter 2, § 36, that the
original appeal by Taxpayers of the Assessor’s denial of their request for agricultural status
be certified to the State Board for its consideration as the finder of fact rather than as an
intermediate level of appellate review. Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 39-11-102.1(c). Compare Rules,
Wyoming State Board of Equalization, Chapter 2 and Rules, Wyoming State Board of
Equalization, Chapter 3. Laramie County Board of Equalization v. Wyoming State Board
of Equalization, 915 P.2d 1184, 1188 (Wyo. 1996); Union Pacific Railroad Company v.
Wyoming State Board of Equalization, 802 P.2d 856, 859 (Wyo. 1990). The State Board
granted certification by order dated August 24, 2006. The appeal of the Taxpayers from the
Assessor’s agricultural status denial is thus before this Board the same as an initial appeal
pursuant to Rules, Wyoming State Board of Equalization, Chapter 2.
The State Board has reviewed and carefully considered all the evidence presented at the
County Board hearing, including a tape recording of the testimony. There was no issue of
credibility of the witnesses with respect to the matters which dispose of this case, thus a
repeat of their testimony to this Board is not necessary. We have also been provided, in the
context of the Assessor’s original appeal to this Board, sufficient briefing on the relevant
issues, thus the receipt of further briefing is not required.
Within 30 days after the date or postmark date of an assessment schedule, whichever is later,
objections to local assessments must be filed with the county assessor indicating why the
assessment is incorrect. Wyo. Stat. Ann. §39-13-109(b)(i). The Taxpayers’ assessment
schedule was dated April 25, 2005. The Assessor’s denial of agricultural status was dated
May 18, 2005. Taxpayers’ protest was filed with the County Assessor on May 20, 2005.
The Taxpayers’ appeal is timely.
CONTENTIONS AND ISSUES
Taxpayers assert the County Assessor improperly denied agricultural valuation in 2005 for
their property. We affirm the Assessor’s denial of agricultural status.
FINDINGS OF FACT
1. Richard and Glenda Hlavnicka own and reside on 19.84 acres at 23 O’Brien Road
north of Lander, Wyoming. The Taxpayers’ property was formerly known as Lot 7 of the
O’Brien Subdivision in Fremont County, Wyoming. [Board Record, Exhibit A, p. 12].
2. Eileen Oakley is the Fremont County Assessor. [Board Record, Hearing Tape].
3. The Assessor sent Taxpayers an Assessment Schedule on April 25, 2005, listing the
total market value of the Taxpayers’ property at $283,600. Of this total, $136,000 was for
the Taxpayers’ land which is the value at issue in this proceeding. [Board Record, Exhibit
A, p. 12].
4. Richard and Glenda Hlavnicka applied for agricultural classification for their property
on May 2, 2005, using the Fremont County Affidavit for Agricultural Classification, 2005
Assessment Year. [Board Record, Exhibit P, pp. 73-76].
5. On May 18, 2005, the Assessor denied the Taxpayers’ application for agricultural
classification stating the information furnished did not meet the definition for agricultural
land as set forth in the Wyoming statutes and rules. The Assessor gave five reasons for the
Property has characteristics of a subdivision or is in transition for further development.
Primary purpose or use of the land is other than producing a marketable agricultural
product, i.e. home site, cabin site, or dude ranch facilities.
The land is not being used or employed, consistent with the land’s size location and
capability to produce.
The owner/lessee does not report or pay taxes on farm machinery or other agricultural
Activities on the land, which appear agricultural in nature, do not by themselves
qualify the land for agricultural assessment.
[Board Record, Exhibit P, p. 72].
6. The Assessor’s letter advised the Taxpayers they could submit additional information
to the Assessor’s office which may affect the classification. The letter also informed the
Taxpayers if they disagreed with the Assessor’s decision, they could file a protest with the
County Board within 30 days of the assessment notice. [Board Record, Exhibit P, p. 72].
7. On May 20, 2005, the Taxpayers filed a protest with an attached letter challenging the
Assessor’s denial of agricultural classification. [Board Record, Exhibit 1, pp. 93-97].
8. Mr. Hlavnicka testified on behalf of the Taxpayers. [Board Record, Hearing Tape].
9. Mr. Hlavnicka stated he was not sure what the Assessor meant when she said the
Taxpayers’ property had characteristics of a subdivision. [Board Record, Hearing Tape].
He stated the owners of the land in the subdivision came before the county commissioners
the previous November to dissolve the subdivision. A year later, when receiving their tax
notices, nothing had changed. He was still listed as Lot 7 of the O’Brien Subdivision which
no longer exists. [Board Record, Hearing Tape].
10. Mr. Hlavincka provided testimony and evidence of more than $500 of revenue from
production on the land. The receipt for hay he sold indicated revenue of $829. [Board
Record, Exhibit P, p. 76]. A copy of the Taxpayers’ Federal Income Tax Form 1040,
Schedule F, showed $845 gross income. [Board Record, Exhibit P, p. 75].
11. Mr. Hlavincka testified the Assessor’s letter indicated “activities on the land which
appear to be agricultural in nature do not by themselves qualify for agricultural assessment.”
He did not know what that meant. [Board Record, Hearing Tape].
12. Mr. Hlavincka stated he bought calves this year (2005). He provided photos of the
calves and a hay field which was ready to be harvested to support his contention the land was
being used for agricultural purposes. [Board Record, Hearing Tape; Exhibit 1, p. 89].
13. Mr. Hlavincka stated the landowners who vacated the subdivision maintained the
Homeowners Association and the private road for the landowners. All of the information
was filed with the covenant and deed changes when the subdivision was dissolved. [Board
Record, Hearing Tape].
14. Mr. Hlavincka testified he believed they met all of the criteria for agricultural
classification because the subdivision was vacated and the Taxpayers sold over $500 worth
of hay. He emphasized only the agricultural classification was being protested. [Board
Record, Hearing Tape].
15. Eileen Oakley testified she was the Fremont County Assessor and was certified as a
property tax appraiser by Department of Revenue (Department). [Board Record, Hearing
16. The Assessor presented a complete description of the Taxpayers’ property. The
market value of the property was determined by using the Computer Assisted Mass Appraisal
system (CAMA) prescribed by the Department. [Board Record, Exhibit B, p. 13]. Only the
residential classification is in dispute. [Board Record, Exhibit R, p. 84].
17. The Assessor testified properties must meet the conditions of the statutes and rules
which govern agriculture value to qualify for agricultural classification. The statutes outline
those conditions and Chapter 10 of the Department’s Rules interpret the conditions. [Board
Record, Hearing Tape; Exhibit I, pp. 40-43].
18. The Assessor asserted to meet agricultural classification there were four qualifications,
all of which must be met. The initial qualification is that the land be used to produce forage.
There were, however, other qualifiers. The Assessor must consider that certain activities
which appear to be agricultural in nature do not by themselves qualify land for the
agricultural classification. The Assessor must consider all requirements, not just the
appearance of the land. [Board Record, Hearing Tape].
19. The second requirement she must consider is whether the land is part of a platted
subdivision. The Assessor conceded the county commissioners had vacated the O’Brien
Subdivision, but she believed the vacation contravened the intent of the statutes on
subdivisions. [Board Record, Hearing Tape]. The Assessor testified the parcels in the
O’Brien Subdivision were required to be platted at the time they were formed and those
parcels would be required to be platted if they were formed today. [Board Record, Hearing
Tape; Exhibit K, p. 45].
20. Chapter 10, Section 3(c)(ii) of the Department’s Rules define non-agricultural land
as “land in active transition from agricultural use to residential, commercial or industrial use,
which includes creation or division of a tract, parcel or other unit of land for the purpose of
sale or development for such use.” [Board Record, Hearing Tape; Exhibit I, p. 42].
21. The Assessor testified the owners of the O’Brien Subdivision lots waited until the
subdivision was fully developed to begin the process of vacation. These lots were sold as
residential lots. The original restrictive covenants state their purpose is to insure the use of
the property for attractive country living, residential purposes only. The restrictive covenants
allowed some animals but the use was regulated by an Architectural Control Committee.
[Board Record, Exhibit D, pp. 18-21]. The amended restrictive covenants, filed after the
vacation of the subdivision, changed the wording minimally by adding the word
‘agricultural’ to the use. However, the Architectural Control Committee still controlled the
use of the land. [Board Record, Exhibit F, pp. 28-36].
22. The Assessor testified the statutes and rules require agricultural land to be used or
employed primarily in an agricultural operation, where primarily means chiefly or the first
importance. The Taxpayers’ land was defined by its own restrictive covenants as residential
with animal and agricultural use being limited by the Agricultural Control Committee.
[Board Record, Hearing Tape; Exhibit R, p. 85].
23. The third qualification the Assessor must consider was whether the owner of the land
derived annual gross revenue of not less than $500. She conceded the Taxpayers presented
information meeting this requirement. [Board Record, Hearing Tape; Exhibit P, pp. 75-76].
24. The fourth qualification for agricultural status was quoted by the Assessor from the
statute. “The land has been used or employed, consistent with the land’s size, location and
capability to produce as defined by the department rules and the mapping and agricultural
manual published by the department, primarily in the agricultural operation...,” where
primarily means chiefly or of the first importance. The Assessor pointed out the Taxpayers’
own covenants established that the land was residential with animals and agricultural use
being limited. Therefore, the Assessor concluded the land’s primary use was residential.
The parcel had significant residential improvements as described in the CAMA printouts.
[Board Record, Hearing Tape, Exhibit B, p. 13; Exhibit R, p. 86].
25. Using the methods prescribed by the Department to determine the productive
capabilities for agricultural value, the Assessor performed a calculation to determine the
capability of the Taxpayers’ land to produce and the expected revenue that would be derived
from that production. She used the Lander Area Soil Survey to find the Taxpayers’ soil type.
[Board Record, Hearing Tape; Exhibit R, p. 86; Exhibits J & K, pp.44-45]. The Assessor
used a conversion for each soil type by referring to the Legend of the Lander Area Soil
Survey. [Board Record, Assessor’s Exhibit L, p. 46]. She then used the Department’s 2005
Ag Land Valuation Study to determine: 1) the Land Resource Area, which is determined by
precipitation and temperature, and 2) the productive class. With this information she
determined the productive capability of the Taxpayers’ land at three to four tons of hay per
acre. Using the lower productive capacity of 3 tons of hay per acre and the 2005 Agricultural
Land Value Study price of $70 per ton of hay, she determined the 17.84 acres (total acreage
less 2 acres for the homestead) could produce $3,500 worth of hay. [Board Record, Hearing
Tape; Exhibit M, pp. 47-62; Exhibit R, p. 86]. She then compared the expected revenue of
$3,500 with the Taxpayers’ documented revenue of $845. The Assessor concluded the
Taxpayers were not using their land to its productive capability. [Board Record, Hearing
Tape; Exhibit P, p. 75; Exhibit R, p. 87].
26. The Assessor stated she applied the Department’s Rules equally and uniformly.
Regardless of the fact that people feel they have used property as best they can and produced
as much as they can, the land had to meet the standards of a true agricultural operation to
assess everyone equally. [Board Record, Hearing Tape].
27. The Assessor reviewed the records of other small acreage parcels between 5 and 20
acres. The Assessor indicated only five small acreage parcels had an agricultural value.
There were 247 other small acreage parcels valued as residential. The Assessor testified that
her office is receiving more and more applications for agricultural use. Agricultural status
is considered at the time of application. Her office has consistently and uniformly valued
these small parcels as residential. [Board Record, Assessor’s Exhibits N & O, pp. 63-71].
28. In conclusion, the Assessor argued Taxpayers’ parcel has activities which appeared
to be agricultural but did not meet all of the requirements for agricultural classification. The
land was previously agricultural, divided into parcels, sold with the primary use of the
property being residential and was correctly valued as residential land. [Board Record,
Hearing Tape; Exhibit R, p. 87].
CONCLUSIONS OF LAW: PRINCIPLES OF LAW
29. The Board is required to “[d]ecide all questions that may arise with reference to the
construction of any statute affecting the assessment, levy and collection of taxes, in
accordance with the rules, regulations, orders and instructions prescribed by the department.”
Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 39-11-102.1(c)(iv).
30. The Board’s Rules provide:
[T]he Petitioner shall have the burden of going forward and the ultimate
burden of persuasion, which burden shall be met by a preponderance of the
Rules, Wyoming State Board of Equalization, Chapter 2 § 20.
31. The Board, in interpreting a statute, follows the same guidelines as a court:
We read the text of the statute and pay attention to its internal structure and the
functional relationship between the parts and the whole. We make the
determination as to meaning, that is, whether the statute’s meaning is subject
to varying interpretations. If we determine that the meaning is not subject to
varying interpretations, that may end the exercise, although we may resort to
extrinsic aids to interpretation, such as legislative history if available and rules
of construction, to confirm the determination. On the other hand, if we
determine the meaning is subject to varying interpretations, we must resort to
available extrinsic aids.
General Chemical v. Unemployment Ins. Comm’n, 902 P.2d 716, 718 (Wyo. 1995).
‘Determining the lawmakers’ intent is our primary focus when we interpret
statutes. Initially, we make an inquiry respecting the ordinary and obvious
meaning of the words employed according to their arrangement and
connection. We construe together all parts of the statute in pari materia,
giving effect to each word, clause, and sentence so that no part will be
inoperative or superfluous. We will not construe statutes in a manner which
renders any portion meaningless or produces absurd results.’ In re WJH, 2001
WY 54, ¶ 7, 24 P.3d 1147, ¶ 7 (Wyo. 2001).
TPJ v. State, 2003 WY 49, ¶ 11, 66 P.3d 710, 713 (Wyo. 2003).
32. The Board considers the omission of certain words intentional on the part of the
Legislature, and we may not add omitted words. “[O]mission of words from a statute is
considered to be an intentional act by the legislature, and this court will not read words into
a statute when the legislature has chosen not to include them.” BP America Production Co.
v. Department of Revenue, 2005 WY 60 ¶ 22, 112 P.3d 596, 607 (Wyo. 2005), quoting
Merrill v. Jansma, 2004 WY 26, ¶ 29, 86 P.3d 270, 285 (Wyo. 2004). See also Parker v.
Artery, 889 P.2d 520 (Wyo. 1995); Fullmer v. Wyoming Employment Security Comm’n., 858
P.2d 1122 (Wyo. 1993). The language which appears in one section of a statute but not
another, will not be read into the section where it is absent. Matter of Adoption of Voss, 550
P.2d 481 (Wyo. 1976).
33. It is an elementary rule of statutory interpretation that all portions of an act must be
read in pari materia, and every word, clause and sentence of it must be considered so that
no part will be inoperative or superfluous. Also applicable is the oft-repeated rule it must be
presumed the Legislature did not intend futile things. Hamlin v. Transcon Lines, 701 P.2d
1139, 1142 (Wyo. 1985).
34. The issue raised by the Taxpayers concerns the Assessor’s denial of agricultural
classification for their land.
35. The Wyoming Constitution, article 15, § 11(b) provides in pertinent part: “[a]ll
taxable property shall be valued at its full value as defined by the legislature except
agricultural and grazing lands which shall be valued according to the capability of the land
to produce agricultural products under normal conditions.”
36. The classification of land as agricultural requires fulfilment of four statutory
(x) The following shall apply to agricultural land:
(A) The department shall determine the taxable value of agricultural
land and prescribe the form of the sworn statement to be used by the property
owner to declare that the property meets the requirements of subparagraph (B)
of this paragraph. In determining the taxable value for assessment purposes
under this paragraph, the value of agricultural land shall be based on the
current use of the land, and the capability of the land to produce agricultural
products, including grazing and forage, based on average yields of lands of the
same classification under normal conditions;
(B) Contiguous or noncontiguous parcels of land under one (1)
operation owned or leased shall qualify for classification as agricultural land
if the land meets each of the following qualifications:
(I) The land is presently being used and employed for an
(II) The land is not part of a platted subdivision;
(III) If the land is not leased land, the owner of the land has
derived annual gross revenues of not less than five hundred
dollars ($500.00) from the marketing of agricultural products, or
if the land is leased land the lessee has derived annual gross
revenues of not less than one thousand dollars ($1,000.00) from
the marketing of agricultural products; and
(IV) The land has been used or employed, consistent with the
land's size, location and capability to produce as defined by
department rules and the mapping and agricultural manual
published by the department, primarily in an agricultural
operation, or the land does not meet this requirement and the
requirement of subdivision (III) of this subparagraph because
(1) Experiences an intervening cause of production
failure beyond its control;
(2) Causes a marketing delay for economic advantage;
(3) Participates in a bona fide conservation program, in
which case proof by an affidavit showing qualification in a previous year shall suffice; or
(4) Has planted a crop that will not yield an income in the
(C)If needed, the county assessor may require the producer to
provide a sworn affidavit affirming that the land meets the requirements of this
paragraph. When deemed necessary, the county assessor may further require
Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 39-13-103(b)(x) (emphasis added).
37. The Department is required to confer with, advise and give necessary instructions and
directions to the county assessors as to their duties, and to promulgate rules and regulations
necessary for the enforcement of all tax measures. Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 39-11-102(c)(xvi) and
(xix). In particular, except as provided by law for specific property, the Department “shall
prescribe by rule and regulation the appraisal methods and systems for determining fair
market value using generally accepted appraisal standards.” Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 39-13-103(b)(ii).
38. A county assessor has a corresponding duty to annually value property within the
assessor’s county, and in doing so to “[f]aithfully and diligently follow and apply the orders,
procedures and formulae of the department of revenue or orders of the state board of
equalization for the appraisal and assessment of all taxable property.” Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 18-3-204(a)(ix).
39. The Department Rules contain a definition of “agricultural land:”
(a) "Agricultural land" means contiguous or noncontiguous parcels of land
presently being used and employed for the primary purpose of providing gross
revenue from agricultural or horticultural use or any combination thereof
unless part of a platted subdivision. Agricultural land shall generally include
land that is actively farmed, ranched or is used to raise timber for timber
products to obtain a fair rate of return.
Rules, Wyoming Department of Revenue, Chapter 10, § 3(a).
40. The Department Rules also contain a definition of “non-agricultural lands:”
(c) "Non-agricultural lands" shall include but not be limited to lands as
described in the State of Wyoming market valuation of Residential,
Commercial and Industrial Lands as published by the Department of Revenue,
Ad Valorem Tax Division:
(i) Lands classified within neighborhood boundaries as residential,
commercial, industrial or rural, whether vacant or improved;
(ii) Lands in active transition from agricultural use to residential,
commercial or industrial use, which includes creation or division of a tract,
parcel or other unit of land for the purpose of sale or development for such use.
(iii) Residential subdivision lands developed with either predetermined
floor plans and elevations or custom buildings;
(iv) Farmsteads with lands occupied by buildings which constitute the
homesite including one or more acres of land used in direct connection with
* * *
(x) Parcels of land forty (40) acres or less unless the landowner
provides proof that such land should otherwise be classified as agricultural
(xi) Land zoned for purposes, which exclude agricultural uses.
Rules, Wyoming Department of Revenue, Chapter 10, § 3(c).
41. Administrative rules have the force and effect of law. Wyo. Dep’t of Revenue v.
Union Pacific Railroad Co., 2003 WY 54, ¶ 18, 67 P.3d 1176, 1184 (Wyo. 2003); Painter
v. Abels, 998 P.2d 931, 939 (Wyo. 2000).
42. With regard to appeals of property tax matters, the Wyoming Supreme Court has
The Department’s valuations for state-assessed property are
presumed valid, accurate, and correct. This presumption can
only be overcome by credible evidence to the contrary. In the
absence of evidence to the contrary, we presume that the
officials charged with establishing value exercised honest
judgement in accordance with the applicable rules, regulations,
and other directives that have passed public scrutiny, either
through legislative enactment or agency rule-making, or both.
The petitioner has the initial burden to present sufficient credible
evidence to overcome the presumption, and a mere difference of
opinion as to value is not sufficient. If the petitioner
successfully overcomes the presumption, then the Board is
required to equally weigh the evidence of all parties and
measure it against the appropriate burden of proof. Once the
presumption is successfully overcome, the burden of going
forward shifts to the DOR to defend its valuation. The
petitioner, however, by challenging the valuation, bears the
ultimate burden of persuasion to prove by a preponderance of
the evidence that the valuation was not derived in accordance
with the required constitutional and statutory requirements for
valuing state-assessed property….
Colorado Interstate Gas Company v. Wyoming Department of
Revenue, 2001 WY 34, ¶¶ 9-11, 20 P.3d 528, ¶¶ 9-11 (Wyo.
2001) (citations omitted).
Airtouch Communications, Inc. v. Dep’t of Revenue, 2003 WY 114, ¶ 12, 76
P.3d 342, 348 (Wyo. 2003).
Thunder Basin Coal Co. v. Campbell County, Wyoming Assessor, 2006 WY 44, ¶ 13, 132
P.3d 801, 806 (Wyo. 2006). This presumption applies equally to an assessor’s valuation of
locally assessed property. Id. at 806 n.1.
CONCLUSIONS OF LAW - APPLICATION OF PRINCIPLES OF LAW
43. We initially note that the Taxpayers have ignored the provision of the Department’s
Rules placing an additional burden on the landowners who seek agricultural classification
for a parcel of forty acres or less. Those landowners must provide proof that a parcel of that
size should be classified agricultural. Rules, Wyoming Department of Revenue, Chapter 10,
§ 3(c)(x). Supra, ¶ 40. This burden applies whether or not the landowner chooses to appeal
an assessor’s determination of agricultural classification.
A. Present Use for Agricultural Purpose
44. The first statutory requirement to qualify for agricultural valuation is the present use
and employment of the land for an agricultural purpose. Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 39-13-103(b)(x)(B)(I). “Agricultural purpose” is defined by statute:
“Agricultural purpose,” as used in W.S. 39-13-103(b)(x), means the following
land uses when conducted consistent with the land's capability to produce:
(A) Cultivation of the soil for production of crops; or
(B) Production of timber products or grasses for forage; or
(C) Rearing, feeding, grazing or management of livestock.
Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 39-13-101(a)(viii).
45. In this case, the Taxpayers presented testimony and evidence they produced and sold
hay in 2004. The production of hay for sale is an agricultural purpose and meets the
requirement of Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 39-13-103(b)(x)(B)(I). The Taxpayers’ purchase of calves
in 2005, after the assessment date, is not relevant to the issue before the State Board, the
classification of the Taxpayers’ land on January 1, 2005. See Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 39-13-103(b)(i)(A).
B. Not Part of Platted Subdivision
46. The second statutory requirement for agricultural classification is that the land “is not
part of a platted subdivision.” Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 39-13-103(b)(x)(B)(II). The Department’s
Rules define “platted subdivision” as follows:
Platted subdivision” [sic] means for the purpose of Chapter 13 of Title 39, the
creation of a lot, parcel, or other unit of land; or division of a lot, parcel, or
other unit of land into one or more parts that has received approval from the
governing body in whose jurisdiction the property resides at the time of
creation and is recorded in the records of the county clerk.
Rules, Wyoming Department of Revenue, Chapter 10, § 3(b). We note that neither of the
parties addressed this Department Rule.
47. The exhibits and testimony of record and the respective briefs filed do not adequately
address the interpretation and application of Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 39-13-103(b)(x)(B)(II) nor
the Department Rule. This lack of discussion and analysis however, based on our
conclusions with regard to the other requirements for agricultural classification, does not
prevent a final decision in this matter. Infra ¶¶ 49-53.
C. Minimum Annual Gross Revenues
48. The third requirement to qualify for agricultural valuation is that the owner establish
the statutory minimum gross revenues were derived from agricultural use of the property.
Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 39-13-103(b)(x)(B)(III). The evidence related to the third requirement
consisted of Respondents’ Federal Income Tax Form 1040 Schedule F, Profit or Loss From
Farming, showing a gross income of approximately $845 for Tax Year 2004, and a receipt
showing income of approximately $829 from the sale of hay. These amounts exceeded the
minimum income requirements set by the legislature for agricultural valuation, and could be
accepted as meeting the minimum gross revenues requirement set by the legislature for
D. Use Consistent With Size, Location and Capability to Produce Primarily in an
49. The Wyoming Constitution grants favorable treatment to agricultural and grazing
lands by providing that they “shall be valued according to the capability of the land to
produce agricultural products under normal conditions.” Wyo. Const. art. 15 § 11(b). The
statutory definition of agricultural purpose echoes this language, limiting those purposes to
being “consistent with the land’s capability to produce.” Wyo. Stat. Ann § 39-13-101(a)(viii).
Land can only qualify for agricultural classification if it meets a fourth and related statutory
test of being “used or employed, consistent with the land’s size, location and capability to
produce as defined by department rules and the mapping and agricultural manual published
by the department, primarily in an agricultural operation….” Wyo. Stat. Ann § 39-13-103(b)(x)(B)(IV). The qualifying phrase, “consistent with the land’s capability to produce,”
appears repeatedly in the Department’s Rules. E.g., Rules, Wyoming Department of Revenue,
Chapter 10, §§ 3(a)(i), 3(a)(ii), 3(a)(ii)(B), 3(a)(ii)(B)(II), 3(a)(ii)(B)(III), 3(a)(ii)(B)(IV).
50. The pertinent definition of “consistent” is “in agreement or harmony; in accord;
compatible.” Webster’s New World College Dictionary, 4th Edition (2001), p. 311. The
fourth statutory test for agricultural classification requires use of the land in an actual
agricultural operation, measured generally by the same constitutional standard providing
favorable property tax treatment – the land’s capability to produce. The State Board
concludes the intent of the legislature was to deny agricultural classification to lands
principally employed in other uses, such as residential or being held for future residential
development, yet generating enough agricultural revenue to meet the minimum gross
revenues standards of Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 39-13-103(b)(x)(B)(III).
51. The statute expressly addresses the problem that “normal conditions” may not prevail
in any given assessment year. Unusual conditions may interfere with a taxpayer’s ability to
use the land consistent with its capability to produce. An agricultural producer may
accordingly be excused from compliance with the fourth requirement for agricultural
classification, and the minimum gross revenue requirement of Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 39-13-103(b)(x)(B)(III), if it:
(1) Experiences an intervening cause of production failure beyond its control;
(2) Causes a marketing delay for economic advantage;
(3) Participates in a bona fide conservation program, in which case proof by
affidavit showing qualification in a previous year shall suffice; or
(4) Has planted a crop that will not yield an income in the tax year.
Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 39-13-103(b)(x)(B)(IV); see Rules, Wyoming Department of Revenue,
Chapter 10, § 3(a)(ii)(A). The Taxpayers in this case offered no evidence to support any
such excuse from compliance with Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 39-13-103(b)(x)(B)(IV).
52. The Assessor prepared a calculation to quantify her view that the Taxpayers did not
meet this requirement. She first excluded two acres from the Taxpayers’ parcel to account
for their residence, as required by the Department’s Rules and consistent with her practice
for other agricultural land in Fremont County. Rules, Wyoming Department of Revenue,
Chapter 10, § 3(c)(iv). She then calculated a minimum production value for the remaining
acres, which she rounded down to $3,500. Supra, ¶ 25. This calculation is consistent with
statutory requirements of the Department’s mapping and agricultural manual, which we have
described in detail in other cases arising from Fremont County. E.g., Fremont County
Assessor (Dechert Property), Docket No. 2004-125, February 4, 2005, 2005 WL 301141
(Wyo. St. Bd. Eq.). Finally, she compared this minimum value against the income actually
reported by the Taxpayers, or approximately $845. Supra, ¶ 10. Based on this comparison,
she concluded the Taxpayers had not employed their land consistent with its capability to
produce. Supra, ¶ 25.
53. The Assessor’s calculation may not be the only approach to determining whether the
use of a particular property is consistent with its capability to produce, but her approach has
obvious virtues. It relies on measurable criteria. The criteria tie to the Assessor’s uniformly
enforced policy concerning the size of the residential portion of agricultural lands in her
county. The criteria also tie to the same measures of productivity that the Department uses
to determine taxable value. They also tie to revenues a taxpayer can readily document.
These objectively verifiable measures should enable a county assessor and a taxpayer to
readily reach a common understanding about whether a taxpayer’s lands qualify for
54. We are obliged to comment on the effect of the restrictive covenants on the
classification of the Taxpayers’ land as the issue was raised by the Taxpayers. [Taxpayers’
Brief, pp. 12-13]. If the restrictive covenants are a factor for consideration, it can only be as
evidence to determine whether their lands are in use “primarily in an agricultural operation.”
Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 39-13-103(b)(x)(B)(IV). The State Board doubts that an examination of
the restrictive covenants supports the Taxpayers’ claim.
55. In their present form, we would be inclined to characterize the covenants as
maintaining a residential character for the Taxpayers and the seven other properties of the
O’Brien Subdivision, with minor accommodation for agricultural activity. For example, the
covenants empower the Architectural Control Committee to determine the number and type
of livestock which may be kept on any given property. [Board Record, Exhibit 10,
Covenants, Section V, p. 22]. On its face, this provision promotes residential use, restricts
agricultural use, and unavoidably acts as a limit on the land’s capability to produce. We are
skeptical that land which is truly devoted primarily to agricultural purposes can be
encumbered by restrictive covenants.
56. In their brief, the Taxpayers raised an issue that “other owners of property in the same
geographic location with similar or smaller acreage and use of that land, were being assessed
at the agricultural classification rate, which rendered the classification of the Taxpayers’ land
as residential by the Fremont County Assessor arbitrary and capricious.” [Taxpayers’ Brief,
pp. 7-8]. As a matter of law, any disparity can be of no concern if the other tracts properly
qualify as agricultural. In fact, the Taxpayers are plainly seeking to create a disparity
between themselves and other taxpayers who have located in large lot subdivisions in
Fremont County. The sole question at issue is whether these Taxpayers qualify for favorable
57. The Taxpayers, in summary, have not fulfilled their burden of proof or ultimate
burden of persuasion that the property in question qualifies for agricultural status.
IT IS THEREFORE HEREBY ORDERED the decision of the Fremont County
Assessor denying the Taxpayers’ request for agricultural classification of the property at
issue is affirmed.
Pursuant to Wyo. Stat. Ann. §16-3-114 and Rule 12, Wyoming Rules of Appellate
Procedure, any person aggrieved or adversely affected in fact by this decision may seek
judicial review in the appropriate district court by filing a petition for review within 30
days of the date of this decision.
DATED this day of September, 2006.
STATE BOARD OF EQUALIZATION
Alan B. Minier, Chairman
Thomas R. Satterfield, Vice-Chairman
Thomas D. Roberts, Board Member
Wendy J. Soto, Executive Secretary